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He never lifted his head again, and was dead within a week.

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She went to the court of Yazid I an i was presented to the poet Al-Ahwas, who had fallen in love with her. She was a celebrated beauty as well as an accomplished singer, and she passed into the hands of several masters. We read of her finally at the court of Yazid II He is specially mentioned on account of his interview with Malik ibn Anas d. He was one of the teachers of Yunus al-Katib. He died at Baghdad in the reign of Al-Mahdl There is a story how a procession of pilgrims was held up by its charm.

Ibn Tunbura was a musician who came from Al-Yaman, and is classed among the most skilful executants in the hazaj rhythmic mode. Aghanl, viii, If the account in the Aghanl xxi, 5 of her being at the court of Yazid II cf. Guidi, , who says Yazid III is correct, she must have been about fifty years of age. In his old age he gave up the musical profession and became an inspector of markets in Al-Medma. He gave music lessons to Khalif Al-Walid II , even during a pilgrimage to Mecca, which scan- dalized the devout.

He is said to have been a muhandis, i. At his native place, Wadi al-Qura, he is said to have been the first of the singers?

His date, however, rather precludes these attributions, and perhaps it is his father who is meant. He possessed not only an excellent voice, but a fund of buffoonery. Dahman al-Ashqar? He is mentioned as late as Facjl ibn Yahya the Barmakide in the eighth century. Aghdnl, Hi, Aghanl, vi, The more liberal intercourse with Byzantium, and the encouragement given to the people of Persia and Khurasan, were the main causes of this. Although Persia and contiguous lands had been thoroughly subdued, and almost every trace of their national life effaced under Arab domination and Islamic penetration, yet there still remained the mind of the Aryan, which became a weighty factor in the artistic, philosophic and scientific ideas of Islamic civilization.

Under the Umayyads, the Arabs, as we have seen, formed a sort of military and administrative aristocracy. Side by side with this political decline, there was a re- trogression in the purely Arabian arts and literature. The arts became similarly influenced.

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  8. Persian costume and decoration were encouraged at court, whilst Persian scholars and philosophers were welcomed. Indeed there. This was pro- bably owing to the fact that musicians formed quite a special and distinct class of society, which, by reason of its insularity, was very narrow and conservative. Herein, as in the previous chapters, the individual khalifs will be used to illustrate the determining political factors in the culture conditions.

    Everywhere they form excellent milestones, as it were, for this purpose, since all culture seems to depend on the body politic. In choosing the capital, the new dynasty would have nothing to do with Syria, which had been the home of the Umayyads. AbuV Abbas was a despot and a tyrant, but a. His interest in Persia and Khurasan, where music and Islam did not come into conflict, had made him partial to the art, and in this respect he carried on the best traditions of the old Sasanid kings of Persia, of whose patronage of music the khalif was no feeble imitator.

    During his reign the Persian family of Barmak were given high adminis- trative positions. The tales which were spread abroad concerning this wonderful city of Al-Mansur, with its two gorgeous palaces the Bab al-Dhahab and the Khuld, soon attracted intellectuals from all parts, as well as a crowd of poets and musicians who were soon to shed lustre on the Khalifate.

    Bar Hebraeus says that Al-Mansur pretended that he did not know what a tunbur pandore was. We have seen the story told of so many of the khalifs, that it looks suspicious. Musa al-Hadl only reigned a short time. The two musicians who had been punished by his father for entering his palace when he was a prince, were sent for on his accession, and they were installed as court musicians. These, with the older Hakam al-Wadi, were the special favourites.

    Harun al-Rashid is the khalif whose name has become a household word not merely in the East, but in the West. The magnificence of his palaces at Baghdad, Al-Anbar and Al-Raqqa, has been abundantly com- mented on. The favourite son 3f Harun, who was named Abu Isa, was also a good musi- cian, and we find him at the court, with his brother Ahmad, taking part in the musical festivities. They both took the title of khalif, and this arrangement lasted until , when war was declared between them.

    It resolved itself finally into a struggle between the Arab and Persian factions, culminating in the defeat of the former, and the death of Al-Amin. This khalif was a man of pleasure, who spent his whole time, we are told, with musicians and singing-girls. This step greatly shocked the stricter Muslims because Ibrahim openly professed himself a musician. Ibn Khalhkan, Biog. He held out the hand of friendship to the famous Arab philosopher and music theorist, Al-Kindi, whose writings became the text-books for several centuries.

    As early as the Muslim armies, after conquering the northern coast of Africa, crossed the Mediterranean and invaded Spain. By , the whole of Spain prac- tically, up to the Pyrenees, and even further, had fallen to the invaders. In the year , however, a refugee landed in Al-Andalus who was to change the fortunes. Lane-Poole, Moors in Spain, Thousands flocked to his banner, and in the following year he made his triumphal entry into Cordova, the capital, and was pro- claimed sultan.

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    Henceforth, this land has a history apart from the Khalifate of the East. The Arab tribal factions, the Berbers, the muwalladun Spaniards turned Muslims , whose internecine strife had for a quarter of a century been a menace to the body politic, were now checked. In spite of the fact that his reign was almost entirely taken up by politics, art and letters flourished. Hisham I was, unlike his predecessor, extremely pious.

    This did not prevent him from surrounding himself with men of science, poets and sages. What his attitude was towards music we are not told by the annalists.


    From the fact that the court was dominated by the theologians of the Malik! Al-Hakam I refused to be governed by the theologians, and they, in turn, fomented rebellion. The new sultan was a true son of the House of Umayya. Such a character was wholly objectionable to the bigoted doctors of theology.


    Yet they did not interfere with the artis- tic and intellectual tastes of the court, always the index of the general culture, which reached a very high. The great musical feature of the period was the school of Ziryab, and the importation of singers from Al-Medina for the propagation of the old Arabian musical ideals. The school lasted until the extinction of the Western Khalifate. The wealth of the khalifs, nobility and merchants was almost abulous. Harun, richer still, was able to jive away two and a half million at one time, whilst at lis death the treasury showed nine hundred million.

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    The magnificence of the palaces, mosques, colleges, and official residences, the luxurious appoint- nents and furnishings of the interiors, the gorgeous etinues and equipages, the sumptuous fetes, banquets,. Everywhere we see culture progress dependent upon economic and political forces, and side by side with this material luxury and political grandeur we find intellectual weal and aesthetic splendour. The art of music naturally fared well under such pro- pitious conditions. The courts were crowded with pro- fessional musicians and singing-girls, who were treated with unheard-of favours and generosity, the memory of which is proverbial with the Arabs to-day.

    Mukhariq took a present from Harun of , pieces. Hakam al-Wadi had nearly , pieces of silver bestowed on him in two gifts from Harun and Ibrahim ibn al-Mahdi. These people were certainly the virtuosi, but even the ordinary pro- fessional musician made a small fortune by his art in these days. It has already been shown that the favours showered on musicians were resented by the theologians ulama , who objected to music on religious grounds.

    Now, however, even the poets are aroused to jealousy. It was. Al-Amln however, although fond of the wine-cup himself, did not extend its bounty to his musicians.

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    Before the judge, he offered to prove that he had fulfilled his contract, by getting the girl to sing. Aghdnl, xiv, 5. Even to-day, in Islamic lands, a singer cannot sue for wages. Al-Hidaya, iv, Aghdnl, xvi, Aghdnl, v, Besides the virtuosi there were two other classes of musicians, the instrumentalist dldtl and the sing- ing-girl qaina.